MLB Package¶
The MLB package offers multiple modules which can be used to retrieve information and statistics for Major League Baseball, such as team names, season stats, game schedules, and boxscore metrics.
Boxscore¶
The Boxscore module can be used to grab information from a specific game.
Metrics range from number of runs scored to the number of sacrifice flies, to
the slugging percentage and much more. The Boxscore can be easily queried by
passing a boxscore’s URI on sportsreference.com which can be retrieved from the
Schedule
class (see Schedule
module below for more information on
retrieving gamespecific information).
from sportsreference.mlb.boxscore import Boxscore
game_data = Boxscore('BOS/BOS201808020')
print(game_data.home_runs) # Prints 15
print(game_data.away_runs) # Prints 7
df = game_data.dataframe # Returns a Pandas DataFrame of game metrics
The Boxscore module also contains a Boxscores
class which searches for all
games played on a particular day and returns a dictionary of matchups between
all teams on the requested day. The dictionary includes the names and
abbreviations for each matchup as well as the boxscore link if applicable.
from datetime import datetime
from sportsreference.mlb.boxscore import Boxscores
games_today = Boxscores(datetime.today())
print(games_today.games) # Prints a dictionary of all matchups for today
The Boxscores
class also allows the ability to query over a range of dates
using a second optional parameter during instantiation of the class. To query a
range of dates, enter the start date as the first parameter and the inclusive
end date as the second parameter.
from datetime import datetime
from sportsreference.mlb.boxscore import Boxscores
# Pulls all games between and including July 17, 2017 and July 20, 2017
games = Boxscores(datetime(2017, 7, 17), datetime(2017, 7, 20))
# Prints a dictionary of all results from July 17, 2017 and July 20, 2017
print(games.games)

class
sportsreference.mlb.boxscore.
Boxscore
(uri)[source]¶ Bases:
object
Detailed information about the final statistics for a game.
Stores all relevant information for a game such as the date, time, location, result, and more advanced metrics such as the number of strikes, a pitcher’s influence on the game, the number of putouts and much more.
Parameters: uri (string) – The relative link to the boxscore HTML page, such as ‘BOS/BOS201806070’. 
attendance
¶ Returns an
int
of the game’s listed attendance.

away_assists
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of assists the away team registered.

away_at_bats
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of at bats the away team had.

away_average_leverage_index
¶ Returns a
float
of the amount of pressure the away team’s pitcher faced during the game. 1.0 denotes average pressure while numbers less than 0 denote lighter pressure.

away_base_out_runs_added
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of base out runs added by the away team.

away_base_out_runs_saved
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of runs saved by the away pitcher based on the number of players on bases. 0.0 denotes an average value.

away_bases_on_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases the away team registerd as a result of balls.

away_batting_average
¶ Returns a
float
of the batting average for the away team.

away_earned_runs
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of runs the away team earned.

away_fly_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of fly balls the away team allowed.

away_game_score
¶ Returns an
int
of the starting away pitcher’s score determine by many factors, such as number of runs scored against, number of strikes, etc.

away_grounded_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of grounded balls the away team allowed.

away_hits
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of hits the away team had.

away_home_runs
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the away team gave up a home run.

away_inherited_runners
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runners a pitcher inherited when he entered the game.

away_inherited_score
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of scorers a pitcher inherited when he entered the game.

away_innings_pitched
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of innings the away team pitched.

away_line_drives
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of line drives the away team allowed.

away_on_base_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the percentage of at bats that result in the batter getting on base.

away_on_base_plus
¶ Returns a
float
of the on base percentage plus the slugging percentage. Percentage ranges from 01.

away_pitches
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of pitches the away team faced.

away_plate_appearances
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of plate appearances the away team made.

away_players
¶ Returns a
list
ofBoxscorePlayer
class instances for each player on the away team.

away_putouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of putouts the away team registered.

away_rbi
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs batted in the away team registered.

away_runs
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs the away team scored.

away_slugging_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the slugging percentage for the away team based on the number of bases gained per atbat with bigger plays getting more weight.

away_strikeouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the away team was struck out.

away_strikes
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times a strike was called against the away team.

away_strikes_by_contact
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the away team struck out a batter who made contact with the pitch.

away_strikes_looking
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the away team struck out a batter who was looking.

away_strikes_swinging
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the away team struck out a batter who was swinging.

away_unknown_bat_type
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of away at bats that were not properly tracked and therefore cannot be safely placed in another statistical category.

away_win_probability_added
¶ Returns a
float
of the total positive influence the away team’s offense had on the outcome of the game.

away_win_probability_by_pitcher
¶ Returns a
float
of the amount of influence the away pitcher had on the game’s result with 0.0 denoting zero influence and 1.0 denoting he was solely responsible for the team’s win.

away_win_probability_for_offensive_player
¶ Returns a
float
of the overall influence the away team’s offense had on the outcome of the game where 0.0 denotes no influence and 1.0 denotes the offense was solely responsible for the outcome.

away_win_probability_subtracted
¶ Returns a
float
of the total negative influence the away team’s offense had on the outcome of the game.

dataframe
¶ Returns a pandas DataFrame containing all other class properties and values. The index for the DataFrame is the string URI that is used to instantiate the class, such as ‘BOS201806070’.

date
¶ Returns a
string
of the date the game took place.

duration
¶ MM’.
Type: Returns a string
of the game’s duration in the format ‘H

home_assists
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of assists the home team registered.

home_at_bats
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of at bats the home team had.

home_average_leverage_index
¶ Returns a
float
of the amount of pressure the home team’s pitcher faced during the game. 1.0 denotes average pressure while numbers less than 0 denote lighter pressure.

home_base_out_runs_added
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of base out runs added by the home team.

home_base_out_runs_saved
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of runs saved by the home pitcher based on the number of players on bases. 0.0 denotes an average value.

home_bases_on_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases the home team registerd as a result of balls.

home_batting_average
¶ Returns a
float
of the batting average for the home team.

home_earned_runs
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of runs the home team earned.

home_fly_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of fly balls the home team allowed.

home_game_score
¶ Returns an
int
of the starting home pitcher’s score determine by many factors, such as number of runs scored against, number of strikes, etc.

home_grounded_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of grounded balls the home team allowed.

home_hits
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of hits the home team had.

home_home_runs
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the home team gave up a home run.

home_inherited_runners
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runners a pitcher inherited when he entered the game.

home_inherited_score
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of scorers a pitcher inherited when he entered the game.

home_innings_pitched
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of innings the home team pitched.

home_line_drives
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of line drives the home team allowed.

home_on_base_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the percentage of at bats that result in the batter getting on base.

home_on_base_plus
¶ Returns a
float
of the on base percentage plus the slugging percentage. Percentage ranges from 01.

home_pitches
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of pitches the home team faced.

home_plate_appearances
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of plate appearances the home team made.

home_players
¶ Returns a
list
ofBoxscorePlayer
class instances for each player on the home team.

home_putouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of putouts the home team registered.

home_rbi
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs batted in the home team registered.

home_runs
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs the home team scored.

home_slugging_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the slugging percentage for the home team based on the number of bases gained per atbat with bigger plays getting more weight.

home_strikeouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the home team was struck out.

home_strikes
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times a strike was called against the home team.

home_strikes_by_contact
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the home team struck out a batter who made contact with the pitch.

home_strikes_looking
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the home team struck out a batter who was looking.

home_strikes_swinging
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the home team struck out a batter who was swinging.

home_unknown_bat_type
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of home at bats that were not properly tracked and therefore cannot be safely placed in another statistical category.

home_win_probability_added
¶ Returns a
float
of the total positive influence the home team’s offense had on the outcome of the game.

home_win_probability_by_pitcher
¶ Returns a
float
of the amount of influence the home pitcher had on the game’s result with 0.0 denoting zero influence and 1.0 denoting he was solely responsible for the team’s win.

home_win_probability_for_offensive_player
¶ Returns a
float
of the overall influence the home team’s offense had on the outcome of the game where 0.0 denotes no influence and 1.0 denotes the offense was solely responsible for the outcome.

home_win_probability_subtracted
¶ Returns a
float
of the total negative influence the home team’s offense had on the outcome of the game.

losing_abbr
¶ Returns a
string
of the losing team’s abbreviation, such as ‘LAD’ for the Los Angeles Dodgers.

losing_name
¶ Returns a
string
of the losing team’s name, such as ‘Los Angeles Dodgers’.

summary
¶ Returns a
dictionary
with two keys, ‘away’ and ‘home’. The value of each key will be a list for each respective team’s score by order of the inning, with the first element belonging to the first inning, similar to the following: {
 ‘away’: [5, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0], ‘home’: [1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0]
}

time
¶ Returns a
string
of the time the game started.

time_of_day
¶ Returns a
string
constant indicated whether the game was played during the day or at night.

venue
¶ Returns a
string
of the name of the ballpark where the game was played.

winner
¶ Returns a
string
constant indicating whether the home or away team won.

winning_abbr
¶ Returns a
string
of the winning team’s abbreviation, such as ‘HOU’ for the Houston Astros.

winning_name
¶ Returns a
string
of the winning team’s name, such as ‘Houston Astros’.


class
sportsreference.mlb.boxscore.
BoxscorePlayer
(player_id, player_name, player_data)[source]¶ Bases:
sportsreference.mlb.player.AbstractPlayer
Get player stats for an individual game.
Given a player ID, such as ‘altuvjo01’ for Jose Altuve, their full name, and all associated stats from the Boxscore page in HTML format, parse the HTML and extract only the relevant stats for the specified player and assign them to readable properties.
This class inherits the
AbstractPlayer
class. As a result, all properties associated withAbstractPlayer
can also be read directly from this class.As this class is instantiated from within the Boxscore class, it should not be called directly and should instead be queried using the appropriate players properties from the Boxscore class.
Parameters:  player_id (string) – A player’s ID according to baseballreference.com, such as ‘altuvjo01’ for Jose Altuve. The player ID can be found by navigating to the player’s stats page and getting the string between the final slash and the ‘.html’ in the URL. In general, the ID is in the format ‘LLLLLFFNN’ where ‘LLLLL’ are the first 5 letters in the player’s last name, ‘FF’, are the first 2 letters in the player’s first name, and ‘NN’ is a number starting at ‘01’ for the first time that player ID has been used and increments by 1 for every successive player.
 player_name (string) – A string representing the player’s first and last name, such as ‘Jose Altuve’.
 player_data (string) – A string representation of the player’s HTML data from the Boxscore page. If the player appears in multiple tables, all of their information will appear in one single string concatenated together.

average_leverage_index
¶ Returns a
float
of the amount of pressure the player faced during the game. 1.0 denotes average pressure while numbers less than 0 denote lighter pressure.

average_leverage_index_pitcher
¶ Returns a
float
of the amount of pressure the pitcher faced during the game. 1.0 denotes average pressure while numbers less than 0 denote lighter pressure.

base_out_runs_added
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of base out runs added by the player.

base_out_runs_saved
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of runs saved by the pitcher based on the number of players on bases. 0.0 denotes an average value.

dataframe
¶ Returns a
pandas DataFrame
containing all other relevant class properties and values for the specified game.

earned_runs_against
¶ Returns a
float
of the player’s overall Earned Runs Against average as calculated by 9 * earned_runs / innings_pitched.

fly_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of fly balls the player allowed.

game_score
¶ Returns an
int
of the pitcher’s score determine by many factors, such as number of runs scored against, number of strikes, etc.

grounded_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of grounded balls the player allowed.

home_runs_thrown
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of home runs the player threw.

inherited_runners
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runners a relief pitcher inherited.

inherited_score
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runners on base when a relief pitcher entered the game that ended up scoring.

innings_pitched
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of innings the player pitched in. Numbers ending in ‘.0’ indicate complete innings, while numbers ending in ‘.1’ are for 1/3 of an inning, and ‘.2’ is for 2/3 of an inning.

line_drives
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of line drives the player allowed.

pitches_thrown
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of pitches the player threw.

strikes
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times a strike was called against the player.

strikes_contact
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the player threw a strike when the player made contact with the ball.

strikes_looking
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the player threw a strike with the player looking.

strikes_swinging
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the player threw a strike with the batter swinging.

strikes_thrown
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times a strikes the player threw.

unknown_bat_types
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of line drives the player allowed.

win_probability_added
¶ Returns a
float
of the total positive influence the player’s offense had on the outcome of the game.

win_probability_added_pitcher
¶ Returns a
float
of the total positive influence the pitcher’s offense had on the outcome of the game.

win_probability_for_offensive_player
¶ Returns a
float
of the overall influence the player’s offense had on the outcome of the game where 0.0 denotes no influence and 1.0 denotes the offense was solely responsible for the outcome.

win_probability_subtracted
¶ Returns a
float
of the total negative influence the player’s offense had on the outcome of the game.

class
sportsreference.mlb.boxscore.
Boxscores
(date, end_date=None)[source]¶ Bases:
object
Search for MLB games taking place on a particular day.
Retrieve a dictionary which contains a list of all games being played on a particular day. Output includes a link to the boxscore, and the names and abbreviations for both the home teams. If no games are played on a particular day, the list will be empty.
Parameters:  date (datetime object) – The date to search for any matches. The month, day, and year are required for the search, but time is not factored into the search.
 end_date (datetime object (optional)) – Optionally specify an end date to iterate until. All boxscores starting from the date specified in the ‘date’ parameter up to and including the boxscores specified in the ‘end_date’ parameter will be pulled. If left empty, or if ‘end_date’ is prior to ‘date’, only the games from the day specified in the ‘date’ parameter will be saved.

games
¶ Returns a
dictionary
object representing all of the games played on the requested day. Dictionary is in the following format:{ 'date': [ # 'date' is the string date in format 'MMDDYYYY' { 'home_name': Name of the home team, such as 'New York Yankees' (`str`), 'home_abbr': Abbreviation for the home team, such as 'NYY' (`str`), 'away_name': Name of the away team, such as 'Houston Astros' (`str`), 'away_abbr': Abbreviation for the away team, such as 'HOU' (`str`), 'boxscore': String representing the boxscore URI, such as 'SLN/SLN201807280' (`str`), 'winning_name': Full name of the winning team, such as 'New York Yankees' (`str`), 'winning_abbr': Abbreviation for the winning team, such as 'NYY' (`str`), 'losing_name': Full name of the losing team, such as 'Houston Astros' (`str`), 'losing_abbr': Abbreviation for the losing team, such as 'HOU' (`str`), 'home_score': Integer score for the home team (`int`), 'away_score': Integer score for the away team (`int`) }, { ... }, ... ] }
If no games were played on ‘date’, the list for [‘date’] will be empty.
Player¶
The Player module contains an abstract base class that can be inherited by both
the BoxscorePlayer
and Player
classes in the Boxscore
and Roster
modules, respectively. All of the properties that appear in the
AbstractPlayer
class can be read from either of the two child classes
mentioned above.

class
sportsreference.mlb.player.
AbstractPlayer
(player_id, player_name, player_data)[source]¶ Bases:
object
Get player information and stats for all seasons.
Given a player ID, such as ‘altuvjo01’ for Jose Altuve, capture all relevant stats and information like name, nationality, height/weight, career home runs, last season’s batting average, salary, contract amount, and much more.
By default, the class instance will return the player’s career stats, but singleseason stats can be found by calling the instance with the requested season as denoted on baseballreference.com.
Parameters: player_id (string) – A player’s ID according to basketballreference.com, such as ‘altuvjo01’ for Jose Altuve. The player ID can be found by navigating to the player’s stats page and getting the string between the final slash and the ‘.html’ in the URL. In general, the ID is in the format ‘LLLLLFFNN’ where ‘LLLLL’ are the first 5 letters in the player’s last name, ‘FF’, are the first 2 letters in the player’s first name, and ‘NN’ is a number starting at ‘01’ for the first time that player ID has been used and increments by 1 for every successive player. 
assists
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of assists the player had.

at_bats
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of at bats the player had.

bases_on_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases the player registered as a result of balls.

bases_on_balls_given
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases on balls the player has given as a pitcher.

batters_faced
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of batters the pitcher has faced.

batting_average
¶ Returns a
float
of the batting average for the player.

earned_runs_allowed
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of earned runs the player allowed as a pitcher.

hits
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of hits the player had.

hits_allowed
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of hits the player allowed as a pitcher.

name
¶ Returns a
string
of the player’s name, such as ‘Jose Altuve’.

on_base_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the percentage of at bats that result in the batter getting on base.

on_base_plus_slugging_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the on base percentage plus the slugging percentage. Percentage ranges from 01.

plate_appearances
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of plate appearances the player had.

player_id
¶ Returns a
string
of the player’s ID on sportsreference, such as ‘altuvjo01’ for Jose Altuve.

putouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of putouts the player had.

runs
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs the player scored.

runs_allowed
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs the player allowed as a pitcher.

runs_batted_in
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs batted in the player registered.

slugging_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the slugging percentage for the player based on the number of bases gained per atbat with bigger plays getting more weight.

strikeouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of strikeouts the player threw as a pitcher.

times_struck_out
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the player was struck out.

Roster¶
The Roster module contains detailed player information, allowing each player to
be queried by their player ID using the Player
class which has detailed
information ranging from career home runs to singleseason stats and player
height, weight, and nationality. The following is an example on collecting
career information for José Altuve.
from sportsreference.mlb.roster import Player
altuve = Player('altuvjo01')
print(altuve.name) # Prints 'José Altuve'
print(altuve.hits) # Prints Altuve's career hits total
# Prints a Pandas DataFrame of all relevant stats per season for Altuve
print(altuve.dataframe)
By default, the player’s career stats are returned whenever a property is called. To get stats for a specific season, call the class instance with the season string. All future property requests will return the seasonspecific stats.
from sportsreference.mlb.roster import Player
altuve = Player('altuvjo01') # Currently pulling career stats
print(altuve.hits) # Prints Altuve's CAREER hits total
# Prints Altuve's hits total only for the 2017 season
print(altuve('2017').hits)
# Prints Altuve's home runs total for the 2017 season only
print(altuve.home_runs)
After requesting singleseason stats, the career stats can be requested again by calling the class without arguments or with the ‘Career’ string passed.
from sportsreference.mlb.roster import Player
altuve = Player('altuvjo01') # Currently pulling career stats
# Prints Altuve's hits total only for the 2017 season
print(altuve('2017').hits)
print(altuve('Career').hits) # Prints Altuve's career hits total
In addition, the Roster module also contains the Roster
class which can be
used to pull all players on a team’s roster during a given season and creates
instances of the Player class for each team member and adds them to a list to be
easily queried.
from sportsreference.mlb.roster import Roster
astros = Roster('HOU')
for player in astros.players:
# Prints the name of all players who played for the Astros in the most
# recent season.
print(player.name)

class
sportsreference.mlb.roster.
Player
(player_id)[source]¶ Bases:
sportsreference.mlb.player.AbstractPlayer
Get player information and stats for all seasons.
Given a player ID, such as ‘altuvjo01’ for Jose Altuve, capture all relevant stats and information like name, nationality, height/weight, career home runs, last season’s batting average, salary, contract amount, and much more.
By default, the class instance will return the player’s career stats, but singleseason stats can be found by calling the instance with the requested season as denoted on baseballreference.com.
Parameters: player_id (string) – A player’s ID according to basketballreference.com, such as ‘altuvjo01’ for Jose Altuve. The player ID can be found by navigating to the player’s stats page and getting the string between the final slash and the ‘.html’ in the URL. In general, the ID is in the format ‘LLLLLFFNN’ where ‘LLLLL’ are the first 5 letters in the player’s last name, ‘FF’, are the first 2 letters in the player’s first name, and ‘NN’ is a number starting at ‘01’ for the first time that player ID has been used and increments by 1 for every successive player. 
assists
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of assists the player had.

at_bats
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of at bats the player had.

balks
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the pitcher balked.

bases_on_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases the player registered as a result of balls.

bases_on_balls_given
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases on balls the player has given as a pitcher.

bases_on_balls_given_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of bases on balls the pitcher has given per nine innings played.

batters_struckout_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of batters the pitcher has struck out per nine innings played.

batting_average
¶ Returns a
float
of the batting average for the player.

birth_date
¶ Returns a
datetime
object of the day and year the player was born.

complete_games
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of complete games the player has participated in.

contract
¶ Returns a
dictionary
of the player’s contract where each key is astring
of the year, such as ‘2017’ and each value is adictionary
with thestring
keyvalue pairs of the player’s age, team name, and salary.

dataframe
¶ Returns a
pandas DataFrame
containing all other relevant class properties and values where each index is a different season plus the career stats.

defensive_chances
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of defensive chances (equal to the number of putouts + assists + errors) the player had.

defensive_runs_saved_above_average
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of defensive runs the player saved compared to an average player.

defensive_runs_saved_above_average_per_innings
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of defensive runs the player was worth per 1,200 innings compared to an average player.

double_plays_turned
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of double plays the player was involved in.

doubles
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of doubles the player hit.

earned_runs_allowed
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of earned runs the player allowed as a pitcher.

era
¶ Returns a
float
of the pitcher’s Earned Runs Average.

era_plus
¶ Returns a
float
of the pitcher’s ERA while adjusted for the ballpark.

errors
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of errors the player made.

fielding_independent_pitching
¶ Returns a
float
of the pitcher’s effectiveness at preventing home runs, bases on balls, and hitting players with pitches, while causing strikeouts.

fielding_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the players fielding percentage, equivalent to (putouts + assists) / (putouts + assists + errors). Percentage ranges from 01.

games
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player participated in.

games_catcher
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a catcher.

games_center_fielder
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a center fielder.

games_designated_hitter
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a designated hitter.

games_finished
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player finished as a pitcher.

games_first_baseman
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a first baseman.

games_in_batting_order
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the batting lineup.

games_in_defensive_lineup
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the defensive lineup.

games_left_fielder
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a left fielder.

games_outfielder
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as an outfielder.

games_pinch_hitter
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a pinch hitter.

games_pinch_runner
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a pinch runner.

games_pitcher
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a pitcher.

games_right_fielder
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a right fielder.

games_second_baseman
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a second baseman.

games_shortstop
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a shortstop.

games_started
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player started.

games_third_baseman
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player was in the lineup as a third baseman.

grounded_into_double_plays
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of double plays the player grounded into.

height
¶ Returns a
string
of the players height in the format “feetinches”.

hits
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of hits the player had.

hits_against_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of hits the player has given per nine innings played.

hits_allowed
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of hits the player allowed as a pitcher.

home_runs
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of home runs the player hit.

home_runs_against_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of home runs the pitcher has given per nine innings played.

home_runs_allowed
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of home runs a player has allowed as a pitcher.

innings_played
¶ Returns a
float
of the total number of innings the player has played in.

intentional_bases_on_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the player has been intentionally walked by the opposition.

intentional_bases_on_balls_given
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases the player has intentionally given as a pitcher.

league_fielding_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the average fielding percentage for the league at the player’s position. Percentage ranges from 01.

league_range_factor_per_game
¶ Returns a
float
of the average range factor for the league per game, equal to (putouts + assists) / games_played.

league_range_factor_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the average range factor for the league per nine innings, equal to 9 * (putouts + assists) / innings_played.

losses
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player has lost as a pitcher.

name
¶ Returns a
string
of the player’s name, such as ‘Jose Altuve’.

nationality
¶ Returns a
string
constant denoting which country the player originiates from.

on_base_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the percentage of at bats that result in the batter getting on base.

on_base_plus_slugging_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the on base percentage plus the slugging percentage. Percentage ranges from 01.

on_base_plus_slugging_percentage_plus
¶ Returns an
int
of the on base percentage plus the slugging percentage, adjusted to the player’s ballpark.

plate_appearances
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of plate appearances the player had.

position
¶ Returns a
string
constant of the player’s primary position.

putouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of putouts the player had.

range_factor_per_game
¶ Returns a
float
of the players range factor per game, equal to 9 * (putouts + assists) / games_played.

range_factor_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the players range factor per nine innings, equal to 9 * (putouts + assists) / innings_played.

runs
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs the player scored.

runs_allowed
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs the player allowed as a pitcher.

runs_batted_in
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs batted in the player registered.

sacrifice_flies
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of sacrifice flies the player hit.

sacrifice_hits
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of sacrifice hits or sacrafice bunts the player made.

saves
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of saves the player made as a pitcher.

season
¶ Returns a
string
of the season in the format ‘YYYY’, such as ‘2017’. If no season was requsted, the career stats will be returned for the player and the season will default to ‘Career’.

shutouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the player did not allow any runs and threw a complete game as a pitcher.

slugging_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the slugging percentage for the player based on the number of bases gained per atbat with bigger plays getting more weight.

stolen_bases
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases the player has stolen.

strikeouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of strikeouts the player threw as a pitcher.

strikeouts_thrown_per_walk
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of batters the pitcher has struck out per the number of walks given.

team_abbreviation
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s abbreviation, such as ‘HOU’ for the Houston Astros.

times_caught_stealing
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the player was caught stealing.

times_hit_by_pitch
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the player has been hit by a pitch.

times_hit_player
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the pitcher hit a player with a pitch.

times_struck_out
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times the player was struck out.

total_bases
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases the player has gained.

total_fielding_runs_above_average
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs the player was worth compared to an average player.

total_fielding_runs_above_average_per_innings
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of runs the player was worth per 1,200 innings compared to an average player.

triples
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of triples the player hit.

weight
¶ Returns an
int
of the player’s weight in pounds.

whip
¶ Returns a
float
of the pitcher’s WHIP score, equivalent to (bases on balls + hits) / innings played.

wild_pitches
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wild pitches the player has thrown.

win_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the players winning percentage as a pitcher. Percentage ranges from 01.

wins
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the player has won as a pitcher.


class
sportsreference.mlb.roster.
Roster
(team, year=None, slim=False)[source]¶ Bases:
object
Get stats for all players on a roster.
Request a team’s roster for a given season and create instances of the Player class for each player, containing a detailed list of the players statistics and information.
Parameters:  team (string) – The team’s abbreviation, such as ‘HOU’ for the Houston Astros.
 year (string (optional)) – The 4digit year to pull the roster from, such as ‘2018’. If left blank, defaults to the most recent season.
 slim (boolean (optional)) – Set to True to return a limited subset of player information including the name and player ID for each player as opposed to all of their respective stats which greatly reduces the time to return a response if just the names and IDs are desired. Defaults to False.

players
¶ Returns a
list
of player instances for each player on the requested team’s roster if theslim
property is False when calling the Roster class. If theslim
property is True, returns adictionary
where each key is a string of the player’s ID and each value is the player’s first and last name as listed on the roster page.
Schedule¶
The Schedule module can be used to iterate over all games in a team’s schedule
to get game information such as the date, score, result, and more. Each game
also has a link to the Boxscore
class which has much more detailed
information on the game metrics.
from sportsreference.mlb.schedule import Schedule
houston_schedule = Schedule('HOU')
for game in houston_schedule:
print(game.date) # Prints the date the game was played
print(game.result) # Prints whether the team won or lost
# Creates an instance of the Boxscore class for the game.
boxscore = game.boxscore

class
sportsreference.mlb.schedule.
Game
(game_data, year)[source]¶ Bases:
object
A representation of a matchup between two teams.
Stores all relevant highlevel match information for a game in a team’s schedule including date, time, opponent, and result.
Parameters:  game_data (string) – The row containing the specified game information.
 year (string) – The year of the current season.

attendance
¶ Returns an
int
of the total listed attendance for the game.

boxscore
¶ Returns an instance of the Boxscore class containing more detailed stats on the game.

boxscore_index
¶ Returns a
string
of the URI for a boxscore which can be used to access or index a game.

dataframe
¶ Returns a pandas DataFrame containing all other class properties and values. The index for the DataFrame is the boxscore string.

dataframe_extended
¶ Returns a pandas DataFrame representing the Boxscore class for the game. This property provides much richer context for the selected game, but takes longer to process compared to the lighter ‘dataframe’ property. The index for the DataFrame is the boxscore string.

date
¶ Returns a
string
of the date the game was played on.

datetime
¶ Returns a datetime object of the month, day, year, and time the game was played.

day_or_night
¶ Returns a
string
constant to indicate whether the game was played during the day or night.

game
¶ Returns an
int
of the game in the season, where 1 is the first game of the season.

game_duration
¶ MM’.
Type: Returns a string
of the game’s total duration in the format ‘H

game_number_for_day
¶ Returns an
int
denoting which game is played for the team during the given day. Default value is 1 where a team plays only one game during the day, but can be higher for double headers, etc. For example, if a team has a double header one day, the first game of the day will return 1 while the second game will return 2.

games_behind
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of games behind the leader the team is. 0.0 indicates the team is tied for first. Negative numbers indicate the number of games a team is ahead of the second place team.

innings
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of innings that were played.

location
¶ Returns a
string
constant to indicate whether the game was played at home or away.

loser
¶ Returns a
string
of the name of the losing pitcher.

opponent_abbr
¶ Returns a
string
of the opponent’s 3letter abbreviation, such as ‘NYY’ for the New York Yankees.

rank
¶ Returns an
int
of the team’s rank in the league with 1 being the best team.

record
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record in the format ‘WL’.

result
¶ Returns a
string
constant to indicate whether the team won or lost.

runs_allowed
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of runs that the team allowed.

runs_scored
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of runs that were scored by the team.

save
¶ Returns a
string
of the name of the pitcher credited with the save if applicable. If no saves, returns None.

streak
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s winning/losing streak at the conclusion of the requested game. A winning streak is denoted by a number of ‘+’ signs for the number of consecutive wins and a losing streak is denoted by a ‘‘ sign.

winner
¶ Returns a
string
of the name of the winning pitcher.

class
sportsreference.mlb.schedule.
Schedule
(abbreviation, year=None)[source]¶ Bases:
object
An object of the given team’s schedule.
Generates a team’s schedule for the season including wins, losses, and scores if applicable.
Parameters:  abbreviation (string) – A team’s short name, such as ‘HOU’ for the Houston Astros.
 year (string (optional)) – The requested year to pull stats from.

dataframe
¶ Returns a pandas DataFrame where each row is a representation of the Game class. Rows are indexed by the boxscore string.

dataframe_extended
¶ Returns a pandas DataFrame where each row is a representation of the Boxscore class for every game in the schedule. Rows are indexed by the boxscore string. This property provides much richer context for the selected game, but takes longer to process compared to the lighter ‘dataframe’ property.
Teams¶
The Teams module exposes information for all MLB teams including the team name and abbreviation, the number of games they won during the season, the total number of bases they’ve stolen, and much more.
from sportsreference.mlb.teams import Teams
teams = Teams()
for team in teams:
print(team.name) # Prints the team's name
print(team.batting_average) # Prints the team's season batting average
Each Team instance contains a link to the Schedule
class which enables easy
iteration over all games for a particular team. A Pandas DataFrame can also be
queried to easily grab all stats for all games.
from sportsreference.mlb.teams import Teams
teams = Teams()
for team in teams:
schedule = team.schedule # Returns a Schedule instance for each team
# Returns a Pandas DataFrame of all metrics for all game Boxscores for
# a season.
df = team.schedule.dataframe_extended
Lastly, each Team instance also contains a link to the Roster
class which
enables players from the team to be easily queried. Each Roster instance
contains detailed stats and information for each player on the team.
from sportsreference.mlb.teams import Teams
for team in Teams():
roster = team.roster # Gets each team's roster
for player in roster.players:
print(player.name) # Prints each players name on the roster

class
sportsreference.mlb.teams.
Team
(team_data, rank, year=None)[source]¶ Bases:
object
An object containing all of a team’s season information.
Finds and parses all team stat information and identifiers, such as rank, name, and abbreviation, and sets them as properties which can be directly read from for easy reference.
Parameters:  team_data (string) – A string containing all of the rows of stats for a given team. If multiple tables are being referenced, this will be comprised of multiple rows in a single string.
 rank (int) – A team’s position in the league based on the number of points they obtained during the season.
 year (string (optional)) – The requested year to pull stats from.

abbreviation
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s abbreviation, such as ‘HOU’ for the Houston Astros.

at_bats
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of at bats for the team.

average_batter_age
¶ Returns a
float
of the average batter age weighted by their number of at bats plus the number of games participated in.

average_pitcher_age
¶ Returns a
float
of the average pitcher age weighted by the number of games started, followed by the number of games played and saves.

away_losses
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of away losses during the season.

away_record
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s away record. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

away_wins
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of away wins during the season.

balks
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of times a pitcher has balked.

bases_on_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of bases on walks.

bases_on_walks_given
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of bases from walks given up by a team during the season.

bases_on_walks_given_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of walks conceded per nine innings.

batters_faced
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of batters all pitchers have faced during a season.

batting_average
¶ Returns a
float
of the batting average for the team. Percentage ranges from 01.

complete_game_shutouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of complete games where the opponent scored zero runs.

complete_games
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of complete games a team has accumulated during the season.

dataframe
¶ Returns a pandas DataFrame containing all other class properties and values. The index for the DataFrame is the string abbreviation of the team, such as ‘HOU’.

doubles
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of doubles hit by the team.

earned_runs_against
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of earned runs against for a team.

earned_runs_against_plus
¶ Returns an
int
of the team’s average earned runs against, adjusted for the home ballpark.

extra_inning_losses
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of losses the team has when the game has gone to extra innings.

extra_inning_record
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record when the game has gone to extra innings. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

extra_inning_wins
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wins the team has when the game has gone to extra innings.

fielding_independent_pitching
¶ Returns a
float
of the team’s effectiveness at preventing home runs, walks, batters being hit by pitches, and strikeouts.

games
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games the team has played during the season.

games_finished
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of games finished which is equivalent to the number of games played minus the number of complete games during the season.

grounded_into_double_plays
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number double plays grounded into by the team.

hit_pitcher
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of times a pitcher has hit an opposing batter.

hits
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of hits during the season.

hits_allowed
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of hits allowed during the season.

hits_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of hits per nine innings by the opponent.

home_losses
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of losses at home during the season.

home_record
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s home record. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

home_runs
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of home runs hit by the team.

home_runs_against
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of home runs given up during the season.

home_runs_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of home runs per nine innings by the opponent.

home_wins
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wins at home during the season.

innings_pitched
¶ Returns a
float
of the total number of innings pitched by a team during the season.

intentional_bases_on_balls
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of times a player took a base from an intentional walk.

interleague_record
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s interleague record. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

last_ten_games_record
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record over the last ten games. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

last_thirty_games_record
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record over the last thirty games. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

last_twenty_games_record
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record over the last twenty games. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

league
¶ Returns a
string
of the two letter abbreviation of the league, such as ‘AL’ for the American League.

losses
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of games the team lost during the season.

losses_last_ten_games
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of losses in the last 10 games.

losses_last_thirty_games
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of losses in the last 30 games.

losses_last_twenty_games
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of losses in the last 20 games.

losses_vs_left_handed_pitchers
¶ Returns an
int
of number of losses against lefthanded pitchers.

losses_vs_right_handed_pitchers
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of losses against righthanded pitchers.

losses_vs_teams_over_500
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of losses against teams over 500.

losses_vs_teams_under_500
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of losses against teams under 500.

luck
¶ Returns an
int
of the difference between the current wins and losses compared to the pythagorean wins and losses.

name
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s full name, such as ‘Houston Astros’.

number_of_pitchers
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of pitchers used during a season.

number_players_used
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of different players used during the season.

on_base_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the percentage of at bats that result in a player taking a base. Percentage ranges from 01.

on_base_plus_slugging_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the sum of the on base percentage plus the slugging percentage.

on_base_plus_slugging_percentage_plus
¶ Returns an
int
of the on base percentage plus the slugging percentage, adjusted to the team’s home ballpark.

opposing_runners_left_on_base
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of opponents a team has left on bases at the end of an inning.

plate_appearances
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of plate appearances for the team.

pythagorean_win_loss
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s expected winloss record based on the runs scored and allowed. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

rank
¶ Returns an
int
of the team’s rank based on their win percentage.

record_vs_left_handed_pitchers
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record against lefthanded pitchers. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

record_vs_right_handed_pitchers
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record against righthanded pitchers. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

record_vs_teams_over_500
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record against teams with a win percentage over 500. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

record_vs_teams_under_500
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record against teams with a win percentage under 500. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

roster
¶ Returns an instance of the Roster class containing all players for the team during the season with all career stats.

run_difference
¶ Returns a
float
of the difference between the number of runs scored and the number of runs given up per game. Positive numbers indicate the team scores more per game than they are scored on.

runners_left_on_base
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of runners left on base at the end of an inning.

runs
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of runs scored per game by the team.

runs_against
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of runs scored per game by the opponent.

runs_allowed_per_game
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of runs a team has allowed per game.

runs_batted_in
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of runs batted in by the team.

sacrifice_flies
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of sacrifice flies the team made during the season.

sacrifice_hits
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of sacrifice hits the team made during the season.

saves
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of saves a team has accumulated during the season.

schedule
¶ Returns an instance of the Schedule class containing the team’s complete schedule for the season.

shutouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of shutouts a team has accumulated during the season.

simple_rating_system
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of runs per game a team scores compared to average.

single_run_losses
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of losses the team has when only one run is scored.

single_run_record
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s record when only one run is scored. Record is in the format ‘WL’.

single_run_wins
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wins the team has when only one run is scored.

slugging_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the ratio of total bases gained per at bat.

stolen_bases
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of bases stolen by the team.

streak
¶ Returns a
string
of the team’s current winning or losing streak, such as ‘W 3’ for a team on a 3game winning streak.

strength_of_schedule
¶ Returns a
float
denoting a team’s strength of schedule, based on runs scores and conceded. Higher values result in more challenging schedules while 0.0 is an average schedule.

strikeouts
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of times a team has struck out an opponent.

strikeouts_per_base_on_balls
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of strikeouts per walk thrown by a team.

strikeouts_per_nine_innings
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of strikeouts a team throws per nine innings.

times_caught_stealing
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of times a player was caught stealing.

times_hit_by_pitch
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of times a batter was hit by an opponent’s pitch.

times_struck_out
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of times the team struck out.

total_bases
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of bases a team has gained during the season.

total_runs
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of runs scored during the season.

triples
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of tripes hit by the team.

whip
¶ Returns a
float
of the average number of walks plus hits by the opponent per inning.

wild_pitches
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of wild pitches thrown by a team during a season.

win_percentage
¶ Returns a
float
of the number of wins divided by the number of games played during the season. Percentage ranges from 01.

wins
¶ Returns an
int
of the total number of games the team won during the season.

wins_last_ten_games
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wins in the last 10 games.

wins_last_thirty_games
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wins in the last 30 games.

wins_last_twenty_games
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wins in the last 20 games.

wins_vs_left_handed_pitchers
¶ Returns an
int
of number of wins against lefthanded pitchers.

wins_vs_right_handed_pitchers
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wins against righthanded pitchers.

wins_vs_teams_over_500
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wins against teams over 500.

wins_vs_teams_under_500
¶ Returns an
int
of the number of wins against teams under 500.

class
sportsreference.mlb.teams.
Teams
(year=None)[source]¶ Bases:
object
A list of all MLB teams and their stats in a given year.
Finds and retrieves a list of all MLB teams from www.baseballreference.com and creates a Team instance for every team that participated in the league in a given year. The Team class comprises a list of all major stats and a few identifiers for the requested season.
Parameters: year (string (optional)) – The requested year to pull stats from. 
dataframes
¶ Returns a pandas DataFrame where each row is a representation of the Team class. Rows are indexed by the team abbreviation.
